The physics of the eye, its performance and colour vision: refraction and accommodation; photoreceptors and resolution; compromises in visual performance.
On scales much bigger than the wavelength, rays explain the behaviour of interfaces, mirrors, lenses, optical instruments, including telescopes and microscopes.
White light comprises colours in the visible spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum. Speed of light. Young's experiment and waves. Quanta and photons.
Sound is produced in the larynx; filtering it in the vocal tract produces formants and phonemes. The acoustics, mechanics and some neurobiology of hearing. Pitch perception.
Reflecting waves gives standing waves, which can be resonances. Standing waves on strings and in pipes and plates.
Superposing waves with different frequencies gives beats and Tartini tones. Removing beats gives consonance. Tuning consonances gives temperament.
Frequency, amplitude, envelope and spectrum affect pitch, loudness and timbre. All are discussed and quantified here.
Moving either source or receiver produces a frequency shift called the Doppler effect, which we measure and analyse.
Sound is a longitudinal wave of variations in pressure and density. We derive and measure its speed.
The wave equation and its physical origin. Power in a wave and its relation to intensity in radiation.
In an extended medium, inertia and a restoring force can lead to waves, which reflect at boundaries, either erect or inverted.
Inertia and restoring forces can, with low friction or damping, lead to oscillations and resonance. We analyse the mechanics of vibrations.
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