#### Quantifying sound

Frequency, amplitude, envelope and spectrum affect pitch, loudness and timbre. All are discussed and quantified here.

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Two University of Sheffield students have recorded a video of the Earth from the edge of space, using homemade equipment and on a shoestring budget.

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Moving either source or receiver produces a frequency shift called the Doppler effect, which we measure and analyse.

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Sound is a longitudinal wave of variations in pressure and density. We derive and measure its speed.

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The wave equation and its physical origin. Power in a wave and its relation to intensity in radiation.

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In an extended medium, inertia and a restoring force can lead to waves, which reflect at boundaries, either erect or inverted.

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Inertia and restoring forces can, with low friction or damping, lead to oscillations and resonance. We analyse the mechanics of vibrations.

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The inverse square law explains planetary motion - and apples falling. Newton's law, measuring G, calculating orbits.

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Torques produce angular acceleration, moment of inertia 'resists' it. Rotational kinetic energy and angular momentum.

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A carved female figurine dating to at least 35,000 years ago has been recovered from caves in the Hohle Fels region of Germany. The figure represents the oldest figurative art yet discovered. In this film the authors describe the importance of their ....

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p=mv. If external forces are zero, momentum is conserved. In collisions, energy may be conserved (elastic) or not (inelastic).

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In finite objects, the total external force equals the total mass times the acceleration of a point called the centre of mass.

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